History of SIPs Panels
HISTORY OF THE STRUCTURAL INSULATED PANEL (SIP’s)
Forest Products Laboratory
Although foam-core panels gained attention in North America in the 1970s, the idea of using stress-skinned panels for construction began in the 1930s. Research and testing of the technology was done primarily by Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) in Madison, Wisconsin as part of a U.S. Forest Service attempt to conserve forest resources. In 1937, a small stressed-skin house was constructed and garnered enough attention to bring in First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt to dedicate the house.
In a testament to the durability of such panel structures, it has endured the severe Wisconsin climate and was used by University of Wisconsin–Madison as a day care centre up until 1998 when it was removed to make way for a new Pharmacy School building.
With the success of the stress-skinned panels, it was suggested stronger skins could support all of the structural loads and eliminate the conventional building frame altogether. After the creation of their prototype, Forest Products Laboratory entered their custom designed SIPs into the marketplace where it sold for the next thirty years.
Frank Lloyd Wright
Engineers from Forest Products Laboratory weren’t the only ones churning out structural panels. In fact, the 1930s saw sandwich-panel technology emerge from another source. Indeed, some of the earliest examples of SIPs can be found in the Usonian houses designed by none other than the famed architect Frank Lloyd Wright.
Frank Lloyd Wright was exceptionally innovative and his SIPs were a result of his efforts to incorporate beauty and simplicity into cost-effective homes. Wright’s attempt at a panel contained no insulation; they consisted of three layers of plywood and two layers of tar paper.
Due to the lack of insulation, this prototype failed to achieve widespread popularity and they were never produced on a large scale.
Alden B. Dow
Alden B. Dow – an architecture student of Frank Lloyd Wright – experimented further with the concept of structural panels.
Dismayed over the lack of proper insulation in Wright’s Usonian homes, concerned about energy efficiency and fearful over depleting natural resources, Dow sought to create a structural panel with an insulated core. In 1950, Dow did just that and as a result he is generally credited with creating the first structural insulated panel.
What are SIPs?
SIPs are the 21st Century Building Material
MgO Structural insulated panels (MgO SIPs) are a high performance building system for residential and light commercial construction. The panels consist of an insulating foam core sandwiched between two structural facings. There are three different facing materials being used in the industry. MgO (magnesium oxide) is considered to be the most environmentally friendly facing material with the most advantages to the builder and home owner. OSB (oriented strand board) and metal are the other two facing materials that are also used.
SIPs are manufactured under factory controlled conditions and can be fabricated to fit nearly any building design. The result is a building system that is extremely strong, energy efficient and cost effective.
Are Structural Insulated Panels More Expensive?
Building with SIPs generally costs about the same as building with timber frame construction when you factor in the labour savings resulting from shorter construction times and less job site waste.
Other savings are realised, as with Smart SIPs MgO panels there is no requirement for bricks, simply render or tape the joins and paint the external MgO panels with a textured coating. With the internal walls, simply stop up the joins and paint or skim coat the MgO panels.
The savings don't stop there as smaller heating and cooling systems are required and less framing timber is used. On double storey construction the scaffold hire cost is significantly less as there are no bricks to lay or external cladding to install.
Green Building with SIPs
Courtesy of SIPA of America
Research out of North America shows the construction and operation of buildings has a significant impact on the environment. As the construction methods in Australia and North America are very similar we can assume for the sake of the exercise the statistics below would be largely similar for our buildings and energy usage here in Australia.
In North America buildings account for 39% of total US energy consumption and 38% of carbon dioxide emissions. Green buildings use less energy, reducing carbon dioxide emissions and playing an important role in combating global climate change. Buildings also use a tremendous amount of natural resources to construct and operate. Constructing green buildings that use these resources more efficiently, while minimising pollution that can harm renewable natural resources, is crucial to a sustainable future. Structural insulated panels (SIPs) are one of the most airtight and well insulated building systems available, making them an inherently green product. An airtight SIP building will use less energy to heat and cool, allow for better control over indoor environmental conditions and reduce construction waste.
Smart SIPs MgO Panels Save Energy
Building with SIPs creates a superior building envelope with high thermal resistance and minimal air infiltration.• Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Whole-wall R-value studies show that a 4-inch SIP wall (nominal) rated at R-14 outperforms a 2×6 stick framed wall with R-19 fibreglass insulation. (R values are the American imperial scale R14 = R 3.8 on the Australian scale and R19 = R 4.7 on the Australian scale)
ORNL blower door tests reveal that a SIP test room is 15 times more airtight than its stick framed counterpart with fibreglass insulation.
Up to 40% of a home’s heat loss is due to air leakage. SIPs have demonstrated amazingly low blower door test results when properly sealed based on the reliable performance of SIPs.
Smart SIPs MgO SIPs Panels Save Resources
The major components of smartsips.com.au MgO panels are EPS foam and magnesuim oxide (MgO). They require less energy and raw materials to produce than other structural building systems. SIPs are also fabricated in a controlled environment, allowing for greater efficiency than site-built framing. The National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) estimates that the construction of a 2000 sq ft home produces 7,000 lbs. of waste. SIPs have the ability to drastically reduce the waste generated during construction by using advanced optimization software and automated fabrication technology to ensure the most efficient use of material.
MgO (magnesium oxide) board is a combined system of MgO, MgC12 and H2O and an alkali agent. The stable magnesium colloid is reinforced with an alkali glass fibre mesh. It is a technologically advanced building material that offers superior performance in every category when compared to traditional wood, gypsum and cement-based products. MgO board is virtually impervious to fire, water, insects; does not feed mould or mildew; is non-toxic, non-flammable and non-combustible; is durable and maintains it’s dimensional stability – even when wet; and has an exceptional bonding surface. MgO board is a mineral-based green building product.
EPS is a lightweight insulation composed mostly of air. Only 2% of EPS is plastic. Over the lifetime of a house, the EPS insulation used in SIPs will save many times the energy embodied in the petroleum used to make EPS. It takes 24% less energy to produce EPS than fibreglass insulation of an equivalent R-value. Scrap EPS generated during the manufacturing process can be recycled into new EPS products.
Traditional Construction vs Smart SIPs MgO SIPs Panels
Results in typical energy usage
Thermal bridging at studs and gaps allows heat to escape, raising energy costs
Uses fibreglass insulation that can sag or shift, reducing R-values over time
Risk of water absorption that can reduce effective R-value by up to 50%
Traditional framing consumes significantly more wood, depleting our natural resources
Framing requires extensive man-hours and longer construction timeframes
Results in wood, sheathing and other waste in landfills
Cavities in walls can result in "chimney effect" that speeds burning
Materials may vary widely in quality
SIPs homes have repeatedly demonstrated annual energy savings of 50-60% when combined with other high performance systems
Solid, continuous insulation that boosts energy efficiency
Smart SIPs MgO panels and the EPS foam will not sag, shift, or develop voids and will maintain their performance integrity throughout their lifetime
Foam core will not absorb moisture, maintaining original insulating qualities
Significantly less wood frame material with MgO skins resulting in a greatly reduced wood requirement
SIPs have been proven to reduce framing labour by as much as 55%
Panels made to size for each project result in virtual elimination of jobsite panel waste
Solid foam core eliminates "chimney effect"
Smart SIPs MgO panels ensure consistent quality through stringent in-house quality control policies and procedures